The Basics of Landscaping

Landscaping provides various benefits, including boosting your home’s value and creating functional outdoor spaces. Landscaping Harrisburg PA also helps protect natural wildlife and promotes a balanced layout between man-made structures and nature.


Using color is an important element in landscape design. Similar hues create harmony, while contrasting shades capture attention.

The term hardscape refers to non-living elements in a landscape design. It includes concrete, gravel, brick and other durable and long-lasting materials. This contrasts the softscape, which includes horticultural elements like trees and plants.

Some popular hardscape features include patios, walkways, fire pits and retaining walls. These features add value to a home and can be enjoyed by the entire family. They can also increase the usability of a yard and create a space for socializing and entertaining.

It is important to consider the drainage of a property when planning a hardscaping project. Adding drainage solutions, such as French drains, can help to prevent water from pooling and damage the materials. It is also a good idea to choose drought-resistant materials when installing hardscaping.

Excessive hardscaping can make a yard feel cold and unwelcoming. It is important to incorporate curved lines and rounded edges into the design. This will give the landscaping a natural look and feel.

Hardscaping projects can be time consuming and labor-intensive, so it is best to hire professionals who specialize in these types of services. Many landscapers offer discounted rates during the winter and fall, when demand is low. This can save you money and allow you to get the hardscaping you want faster. It is also a good idea to schedule these projects during the milder months when temperatures are easier on the landscape and the workers.


Softscaping involves the living horticultural elements of your landscape design, such as grass, trees, shrubs and flowers. It can also include flower beds, herb gardens and vegetable plots. This type of landscaping adds color and contrast to your yard, cools the environment by absorbing sunlight and provides oxygen, and it can even reduce erosion in sloped areas.

The beauty of softscaping is that it can be changed to suit your personal preferences over time. Flowers and groundcovers can be replaced easily, while shrubs and trees may require a longer commitment because they grow and change over time. For this reason, they are often considered a more long-term investment than hardscape elements, which are more permanent in nature.

In addition to its aesthetic appeal, softscaping can provide privacy by screening views and sound. It can also act as a natural air-conditioner and firebreak, and it can filter runoff and pollutants. However, it’s important to note that softscaping can be difficult for those who don’t have a green thumb or aren’t interested in the maintenance required.

It’s a good idea to plan the layout of your hardscape features first before moving on to the softscape elements. The right balance of both is crucial, as too much hardscape can make your landscape feel cold and impersonal. On the other hand, too much softscape can appear cluttered and chaotic. In the end, the goal is to create an inviting outdoor space where you can relax and enjoy the company of family and friends.


Focalization is a narrative theory term coined by the French scholar Gerard Genette to refine the notions of point of view and narrative perspective. It separates the question of who sees from the question of who speaks, and clarifies the distinction between focalization and visual mediation. While the term is often confused with point of view, it is distinct from it in that it deals with the selection and restriction of information that is accessible.

Focalization can also affect how readers perceive characters. For example, the use of focalization allows the writer to restrain how the reader interprets a character’s actions. This can be helpful in preventing the reader from mind-reading the actions of characters, which can lead to inappropriate reactions. It can also be used to create a sense of disconnection between the character and the reader.

A landscape approach recognises the need to consider all forms of landscape, from remarkable natural landscapes to ordinary everyday ones and degraded areas. These landscapes have a bearing on citizens’ quality of life, and the objective of this approach is to identify the best way to balance land use between development and conservation. It is also important to identify the benefits and risks of different types of land management. This will help ensure that sustainable landscape policies are developed to address the needs of all stakeholders. This will include balancing land uses, integrating biodiversity and landscape approaches, and understanding agriculture-environment trade offs.


Landscaping is the practice of modifying the natural features of an outdoor area. This can include planting trees, shrubs and flowers as well as constructing structures like walkways, patios and decks. The process also involves water features and other decorations to create a beautiful garden or yard. Landscaping professionals often work with clients to decide what type of landscape they want. Some people choose to have a balanced combination of hardscaping and softscaping, while others prefer a more organic style that saves water and protects the environment.

In addition to enhancing the appearance of an outdoor space, landscaping can also be used to create a functional area. For example, a large backyard can be transformed into an entertainment area with a pool and fire pit. Landscaping companies may also install fences, retaining walls, and decks to enhance a home’s curb appeal.

The emergence of the Romantic movement intensified the interest in remote and wild landscapes. This trend was reflected in the paintings of German artist Caspar David Friedrich, who developed a distinctive style that was influenced by his Danish training and blended with a quasi-mystical romanticism. In France, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and other painters of the Barbizon School established a French landscape painting tradition that would dominate for a century.


The sequence of landscape elements is important for creating a balance and defining movement through a garden. It can also help create a sense of order and proportion, which is necessary for achieving harmony with the surrounding home or structure. This principle requires careful thought, as too many or too few lines can have a negative effect on the design. For example, too many straight lines may look harsh and disorganized, while too few might lack balance.

One way to use sequence is by using repetition in the form of line, color or texture. This can create patterns and rhythm in the garden, but should be used carefully to avoid monotony. For example, using a pattern of short-high-short or small-big-small can create a balanced design that is both elegant and functional.

Another way to use sequence is by using transitions in plant size, shape and texture. For example, using a gradual change from tall to short plants or from smooth to rough textures can offer a natural, appealing transition that emphasizes the overall garden. Abrupt changes, on the other hand, can be distracting and cause confusion.

A sequence is a group of objects or numbers that are arranged in a specific order, and can be finite or infinite depending on how it’s defined. For example, if you want to define a sequence with a specific number law (such as adding or subtracting a definite amount to each preceding term), then you’d have an arithmetic sequence.


Unity is the principle that all parts of a landscape must work together to create the whole. It is often achieved by using a design theme or style, but it can also be accomplished through the use of dominance, interconnection, unity of three and simplicity in arranging textures, colors and forms.

Unity also includes the overall composition of a landscape, including its layout and balance. This can be achieved symmetrically or asymmetrically, depending on the needs of the site. For example, symmetry is appropriate for formal landscapes, while asymmetry is better suited for informal landscapes and naturalistic gardens.

A successful landscape requires careful planning and thoughtful execution. In addition to horticultural science and artful composition, it must consider a wide range of factors, such as the soil quality and condition, prevailing winds, depth of frost line, system of native flora and fauna, and environmental issues like drainage and erosion control. A well-designed landscape is one that is both beautiful and functional, a living work of art that enhances the environment and provides enjoyment for people and wildlife alike.